Kim H. Veltman
“Bridges, Languages and Cultures,” GENÇLİK VE KÜLTÜREL MİRASIMIZ, International Congress on Youth and Culture, Sansun, Turkey, 15-18 May, 2014, pp. 773-788, Ceylan Ofset , Samsun, 2014.    


Physically, Turkey is a country with a bridge across the Bosporus with Europe on the West side and Asia on the East side. Metaphysically, Turkey is one of the keys to understanding connections between East and West. Already in the 2nd millennium B.C. there was a Tin Road linking Kültepe and the Indus Valley. By the 5th c. B.C., there was a royal road linking Susa in Elam (Iran) with Sardis (Turkey).

This paper explores how Turkey offers bridges to Europe, Asia and Eurasia in terms of religions, languages and city plans. It suggests that research into old Turkic traditions might hold a key to understanding common roots of Altaic and Indo-European languages. Turkey’s understanding of its roots would help Europe and the world to recognize their debt to Turkic traditions.

1. Introduction
2. Bridges to Europe
2.1. Celtic, Greek, Roman Influences
2.2. Christianity
2.3. Early European Languages  
3. Bridges to Asia
3.1 Zoroastrianism
3.2 City Plans
3.3 Country Plans
4. Bridges to Eurasia
4.1 Tengrism
4.2 Allah
4.3 Ur Tamgas and Letters
4.4 Chinese and Turkic Tribes and Tamgas
5. Cradles of Civilization
6. Conclusions


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