400 - 1199

400 - 1199 brought no new methods of spatial representation, yet prepared the way through a fundamental change in orientation to a Christian concept of creatural realism: i.e. that the natural world was real, and not merely a copy of a world of ideas. Some interest in spatial effects remained, as for instance, in ornamental frets in the Reichenau. Methods of pseudo-perspective such as inverted perspective and staggering perspective continued. The tradition of painting Christ as Pantokrator on the curved apses of churches, led to a proto- anamorphic perspective. Meanwhile, the Arabic tradition of optics notably, Al-Kindi and Alhazen, had given a new basis to optics by developing Stoic ideas of certification of sight.