1200 - 1399

1200 - 1399 saw a first stage in the recovery of Greek mathematical optical and philosophical texts, notably Euclid and Ptolemy, and their integration with Arabic ideas of Alhazen, via Witelo, Peckham and Biagio Pelacani da Parma. This led to new links between optics, planispheric projection and representation. Meanwhile, the Franciscan movement inspired new links between narrative and representation, which led to proto-perspectival effects in isolated elements of fresco and paintings. These went hand in hand with developments in Gothic architecture, which began to construct regular spaces, that lent themselves to perspectival representation.