1900 -

1900 - , has brought new developments in analytic geometry, and new emphasis on instruments (camera, photogrammetry, computer, holograph). In technical drawing, methods and distinctions have been formalized and standardized, e.g. the branches of axonometric into isometric, dimetric, trimetric; multiview projection into first-angle (England) and third-angle projection (United States). In art, there has been new attention to the inner world, with emphasis on personal and subjective images, leading to new concern with spherical perspective, and new branches of pseudo-perspective characterized by Gebser (1947, etc.) as aperspective.